Oil on canvas.
Antonio Calza was an Italian painter of the Baroque period. Born in Verona, he was the son of a jeweller. He apprenticed with Bolognese painter Carl Cignani, then moved to Rome where he worked under Jacques Courtois. Most of his life, however, was spent in Bologna. His students included Guglielmo Capodoro (Paganini) and Giovanni Battista Canziani.
Antonio Calza is known primarily for paintings of historical and battle themes, as can be seen in these two images. The multi-figural scenes are executed in colours ranging from dark earth tones with no colour accents to the greyish sky that occupies a large part of the painted surface on both canvases. The tangle of fighting human bodies and frightened horses in the middle of battle give the impression of vigorous motion, and the figures, especially those in the background, are portrayed expressively. As regards the play of light, the artist carefully executed the daylight reflections on the individual pieces of armour.